1020 Washington St N       Twin Falls ID 83301-3156       (208) 737-5900       Toll Free: (866) 710-9775

Login or Register for the Idaho Health Alert Network

Region 5 Public Information Hotline 866-450-3594

Ebola: Information for U.S. Healthcare Workers and Settings

Mobile Website Preview

Printer Friendly    Provide Feedback

Disease Name: HIV/AIDS


Quick Links

Please review the Idaho Reportable Disease Rules (IDAPA 16.02.10) for the most up-to-date information.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015) Red Book:  2015 Report of the Committee of Infectious Diseases (30th ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL.

Infectious Diseases. (2016). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov.


Overview / Case Definition

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is a retrovirus. The two types of HIV that have been identified are HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is much more common in the United States; humans are the only known reservoir. Human immunodeficiency virus has been isolated from blood (including lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma) and from other body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, human milk, semen, cervical secretions, saliva, urine, and tears. Only blood, semen, cervical secretions, and human milk, however, have been implicated epidemiologically in transmission of infection.

The established modes of HIV transmission in the United States are the following: 

  1. sexual contact (vaginal, anal, or orogenital);
  2. percutaneous (from needles or other sharp instruments) or mucous membrane exposure to contaminated blood or other body fluids;
  3. mother-to-child (i.e., vertical) transmission before or around the time of birth, and postnatally through breastfeeding.

HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, often called T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These special cells help the immune system fight off infections.

AIDS is the most severe phase of HIV infection. People with AIDS have such badly damaged immune systems that they get an increasing number of severe illnesses, called opportunistic illnesses. Without treatment, people with AIDS typically survive about 3 years. Common symptoms of AIDS include chills, fever, sweats, swollen lymph glands, weakness, and weight loss. People are diagnosed with AIDS when their CD4 cell count drops below 200 cells/mm or if they develop certain opportunistic illnesses. People with AIDS can have a high viral load and be very infectious.


Restrictions

None

HIV positive individuals should be made aware of Idaho Statute concerning persons who knowingly expose others to their body fluids.  http://legislature.idaho.gov/idstat/Title39/T39CH6SECT39-608.htm


Reporting

Within 3 working days

Reportable by Healthcare and Labs:

Reportable by Food Service Facility:

Suspect Reportable:

Reporting Timeframe: Within 3 working days



Diagnosis / Testing

CDC testing recommendations: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5514a1.htm

Recommended laboratory HIV testing algorithm: https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/23446


Treatment

Individuals are interviewed by SCPHD epidemiologists to determine possible contacts. Contacts are located and offered testing.

US Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/672271

PEP Quick Guide for Occupational Exposures: http://nccc.ucsf.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/CCC_PEP_Quick_Guide_for_Occupational_Exposures.pdf

Perinatal Transmission prevention: https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/perinatalgl.pdf

Prophylaxis curing conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/prep_gl_clinician_factsheet_pregnancy_english.pdf

Guidelines for Antiretroviral Postexposure Prophylaxis after Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV:
https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/38856


Additional Information

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015) Red Book:  2015 Report of the Committee of Infectious Diseases (30th ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL.

Infectious Diseases. (2016). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov.


Click to Call South Central Public Health District

Click to Call the Idaho State Epidemiologist

Click to Call Idaho State Communications